Izixhumi ziwuhlobo lwedivayisi kagesi elawulwa kude, enesibopho sokuvula nokuvala amasekhethi, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi angenalutho noma alayishiwe. Esihlokweni esilandelayo sizofunda konke mayelana nabathintana nabo, ukuthi basebenza kanjani nokunye okuningi.

abathintwayo-1

Yini i-contactor?

I-contactor yaziwa njengedivayisi yokulawula, eklanyelwe ukuvala nokuvula ama-circuits, ingasebenza ingenalutho noma ilayishiwe. Ukuba ithuluzi elibalulekile ku-automation yamamotho kagesi.

Ngenxa yalesi sizathu, ochwepheshe babheka ukuthi umsebenzi oyinhloko wabathintana nabo ukwenza izinto ezihlukahlukene, ezivumela ukuba bavule noma bavale izifunda zikagesi ezihlobene nama-motor kagesi.

Ngaphandle kwamamotho amancanyana, ajwayele ukusebenza ngisho ngesandla noma ngokudluliselwa (okuwuhlobo lwe I-Electromagnetic Induction), amanye amamotho acushwa ngokusebenzisa izixhumi. 

I-contactor yenziwe uhlobo lwekhoyili futhi futhi ngezinye izinhlobo zoxhumana nabo, ezingavuleka noma zivalwe, futhi okuvame ukushintshwa kokuvula nokuvala kwamandla wamanje kumjikelezo.

Ikhoyili iqukethe uhlobo lukazibuthe we-electromagnetic oluvame ukwenza oxhumana nabo basebenze, lapho i-current ifika kubo, njengoba ivula othintana nabo abavaliwe futhi ivale abathintwayo abavuliwe.

Ngenxa yalesi sizathu, uma lokhu kwenzeka, i-contactor ibhekwa njengexhunywe, icushwe noma icushwe. Njengoba ikhoyili ivumela ukuthi yenze umsebenzi wayo lapho ukushaja kagesi kungangeni, lokhu kubangela ukuthi othintana nabo babuyele esimweni sabo sokuqala, okungukuthi, bangena kwimodi yokulala, le nqubo yaziwa ngokuthi i-contactor ngaphandle kokusebenza.

Ku-contact yangempela, izixhumi zokuxhuma ikhoyili zibizwa ngokuthi "A1 ne-A2" ngaso sonke isikhathi. Oxhumana nabo be-output noma ama-circuits amandla babizwa ngokuthi "1-2, 3-4" kanye ne- “Oxhumana Nabo Abasizayo”, esimweni sokuyala noma izifunda zokulawula, ngokuvamile zaziwa ngezinombolo ezinamadijithi angu-2, isibonelo "13 - 14".

Kuyini ukusebenza kwe-contactor?

Ukuze le nqubo yenziwe, kuyadingeka ukuthi umshini wamanje ufinyelele ikhoyili, equkethe i-electromagnetic, ngaleyo ndlela ivumele ukukhanga kwesando esidonswa ngenkathi kukhiqizwa ukunyakaza okuhlukahlukene, esimweni sokuxhumana omakhalekhukhwini abasebenzela ku-The ohlangothini lwesobunxele. Lolu hlobo lokusebenza lubizwa ngokuthi "i-contactor interlock".

Iningi labaxhunywana nabo livame ukutholakala livuliwe manje yilapho liba othintana nabo abavaliwe, futhi owokugcina obevaliwe uzoba othintana naye ovulekile.

Ezimweni lapho ikhoyili icushiwe, kubhekwa ukuthi i-contactor izobe ivaliwe, njengengxenye yenqubo yayo evamile. Ngenxa yalesi sizathu, phakathi nalo msebenzi, okwamanje ayisakhiqizwa ikhoyili, okubangela ukuthi i-contactor ibuyele endaweni yayo yasekuqaleni, okungukuthi, kumodi yokulinda.

Cabanga ngomuntu othintana naye onezixhumi ezingaba ngu-3 zamandla, ngakho-ke lokhu kungasebenzela uhlobo lwesistimu yezigaba ezintathu noma injini yezigaba ezintathu okuyisigaba esingu-3.. Uma i-contactor iyisigaba esisodwa (okungukuthi, inesigaba esisodwa kuphela nokungathathi hlangothi), isebenza kanje:

Uma kusetshenziselwa ukulawula isibani, kuphakanyiswa okunye okulandelayo, ukuze umuntu akwazi ukucisha isibani kuyadingeka ukuthi akwazi ukuvula inkinobho evaliwe, lokhu kutholakala engxenyeni engenhla. wekhoyili esebenzayo.

Ezimweni ezinjalo, ngokuvamile kungcono ukusebenzisa i-relay elula (njengoba sishilo ngaphambili, idivayisi ye-electromagnetic), ngoba iba enye eshibhe kakhulu. Ukuze uthole injini yesigaba esisodwa, isibani kuphela kuzodingeka sishintshwe yi-motor.

Oxhumana naye wezigaba ezintathu

Uma sibhekisisa, ikhoyili icushiwe ngokusebenzisa inkinobho yesigaba esisodwa kanye nokungathathi hlangothi (L1 no-N), lokhu kusho ukuthi, cishe ku-220 V. Axhunywe kumatheminali A1 kanye no-A2 we-contactor yangempela.

Injini yezigaba ezintathu izovulwa ngokusebenzisa othintana nabo abakhulu be-contactor ngezigaba ezi-3 ze-motor (L1, L2 kanye ne-L3), isibonelo cishe ku-400V noma ingaba ku-380V. Endabeni yokuxhumana kwangempela, kufanele baxhunywe ku-force contactor 1-2, 3-4, 5-6, njengengxenye yenqubo yabo. Kubalulekile ukuqaphela ukuthi othintana nabo abaqukethe izinombolo 13-14 no-21-22 basebenzela isifunda sokulawula.

Esinye isici esithakazelisa kakhulu siphakama lapho ukushintshela kukhoyili kucushiwe, njengoba le nqubo ivumela ukuthi i-current ifike, ibangele ukuthi i-contactor ibambe futhi ngaleyo ndlela ivale othintana nabo abakhulu futhi iphinde ivule injini kagesi.

Ngokuvamile uma inqanyuliwe ku-coil, okwamanje okukhiqizwa ngosizo lwe-switch ayilandeli inkambo yayo futhi lokhu kubangela ukuthi othintana nabo babuyele endaweni yabo yokuphumula okubangela ukuthi injini ime.

Lokhu ngokuvamile kuwuhlobo lokuqala oluyisisekelo futhi oluqondile, ezinye zezifunda zokuqalisa ama-motor ezigaba ezintathu, isibonelo, i-star-delta iqala.

Njengoba sibona kumasekethe othintana naye, kungahlukaniswa izifunda ezimbili ezihlukene: isifunda somyalo, okuzoba yisona esicupha noma sivale ikhoyili, kanye nesekhethi yamandla, okuzoba yiyona eqalayo noma eyodwa emisa injini.

Isifunda sokulawula yisona esivame ukuba uhlobo lwesekhethi ku-voltage ephansi futhi futhi sibe namandla aphansi kunesekhethi yamandla. Yingakho izixhumi eziyinhloko noma zamandla ziba mkhulu kunalezo ezisizayo.

Kungashiwo ukuthi uhlelo lwangaphambilini alusebenzisi othintana nabo abasizayo, kodwa lufeza kuphela inqubo yalo ngokusebenzisa ikhoyili, isibonelo salolu hlelo yilokho okubizwa ngokuthi ukuzinikezela.

Esinye sezici eziyinhloko neziyisisekelo zabathintana nabo ngokuvamile ikhono labo lokuhamba kulawo masekhethi angaphansi kwesigaba esinamandla nesiphezulu samanje, kuyini isifunda samandla, nokho, ngamaza amancane kumjikelezo wokulawula.

Ngokuvamile, inani elincane lamanje liyadingeka (lokhu kukhiqizwa kumjikelezo wokulawula), ngaleyo ndlela ivumela isifunda samandla ukuba sisebenze ngokunembile esinikeza amandla amakhulu noma ngisho namanje.

Isibonelo, uma kudingekile ukuthi ikhoyili isebenze, amanani alandelayo angasetshenziswa: 0,35 A no-220 V, esimweni esibizwa ngokuthi i-Force circuit, kuphela ukuqala kwamanje kwe-motor cishe ku-200 A. evunyelwe ukusetshenziswa, lokhu njengengxenye yenqubo yakho evamile.

Yiziphi Izigaba Zoxhumana Nabo?

Indaba yokukhetha ukulinganisa okulungile koxhumana naye kuzoncika ngokuqondile kuzici zohlelo lwayo olucaciswe kakhulu.

Naphezu kweqiniso lokuthi ipharamitha yesici yabathintana nabo ingamandla noma isevisi yamanje esebenzayo okufanele othintana nabo abakhulu bamelane nayo, kungenxa yalesi sizathu ukuthi kufanele sicabangele lezi zici ezilandelayo:

Okokuqala, imininingwane yesifunda kufanele icatshangelwe, okungukuthi, ngayinye yezici zayo kanye nezinga lomthwalo, okufanele ilawulwe kahle: Kulokhu, kubhekiselwa ku-Working Voltage, i-Transients. ku-Power Up futhi ekugcineni Uhlobo Lwamanje, okuhlukaniswa kwalo kuhlanganisa (CC NOMA CA).

  • Izimo Zokusebenza: inombolo yokuqondisa ngehora, ukusikeka kungenalutho noma kulayishiwe, izinga lokushisa elizungezile, njll.

Ngalesi sizathu, izinhlelo zokusebenza ezikhonjiswe ku-contactor ethile zizoncika esigabeni sokusebenza noma isigaba senkonzo, ukuze ikwazi ukwenza umsebenzi wayo ojwayelekile.

Lesi sigaba sesigaba yisona esikhonjiswa ku-casing noma kugobolondo ledivayisi futhi yisona esicacisa ukuthi yisiphi isigaba semithwalo esilunge kakhulu ukusithinta. Izigaba ezi-4 ezikhona yilezi ezilandelayo:

I-AC1 – Imigomo Yesevisi Elula

Ngokuvamile, othintana nabo bazoxhomeka ohlotsheni lokulawula imithwalo emisiwe, efana ne-non-inductive noma ekhiqiza umphumela omncane we-inductive (kulokhu, ama-motor awafakiwe), njengezibani ze-incandescent, kanye nama-heaters kagesi. , phakathi kwabanye.

abathintwayo-4

I-AC2 – Izimo Zesevisi Ejwayelekile

Lokhu kuncike ekusetshenzisweni kwamandla ashintshayo kanye nakwezinye izici, njengohlobo lokuqalisa kanye nokusebenza kahle kwamamotho amaringi, njengoba kwenzeka ezinhlelweni ze-centrifuge.

I-AC3 - Izimo Zesevisi Enzima

Kucatshangwa ukuthi okufanelekile ukwenza ukuqaliswa okubanzi ngendlela efanele noma ukuhlinzeka ngomthwalo owanele wezinjini yilabo ababizwa ngokuthi i-asynchronous squirrel-cage, ngenxa yokuthi phakathi kwabo kukhona uchungechunge lwama-compressor, kukhona nabalandeli abanosayizi omkhulu, Kanye nama-air conditioner, le mikhiqizo ivamise ukumiswa ngamaza angemuva.

I-AC4 – Izimo Zesevisi Ezedlulele

Ochwepheshe bacabangela ukuthi othintana nabo abajwayele ukujwayela ama-asynchronous motors, njengoba kunjalo ngama-cranes, futhi ngokusebenza kwama-elevator, ngokwemigomo yokuqondisa okukhiqizwa uchungechunge lwe-impulses, kuzoxhomeka endleleni i-countercurrent esebenza ngayo. , kanye nokuguqulwa kwegiya.

Ngokuqondisa ama-impulses, kufanele siqonde ukuthi cishe i-1 noma ukuvalwa okufushane okungapheli kwesekethe Imoto kagesi, futhi kufinyelelwa ngazo ukufuduka okuncane.

Ukuqala kwe-Motors ngu-Contactor

Ngalesi sikhathi sizokhuluma ngamanye amasekhethi ayisisekelo okuqala ama-motor ngokusebenzisa othintana nabo. Kulokhu sizosebenzisa oxhumana nabo bezigaba ezintathu.

Umjikelezo Oqondile ngenxa Yokushintsha: Yilona elifeza umsebenzi othile ekuqaleni ngokusebenzisa Izinkinobho Ezisebenza Ngokwakho.

Kulokhu, uhlobo lwempendulo luzodingeka, ukuze kuthi lapho inkinobho yokuqala ithintwa, i-contactor iqhubeke inikwe amandla (ngamanje ngaphakathi kwekhoyili) ngisho nalapho u-opharetha ekhulula inkinobho yokuqala.

Izoma kuphela uma u-opharetha ecindezela inkinobho yokumisa. Uhlelo lwalokho okubizwa ngokuthi i-control circuit kuzoba okulandelayo:

Isikhathi sothintana naye sinqunywa ukuhlukaniswa kwe-KM. I-Sp iqukethe umsebenzi wenkinobho yokumisa, ngokuqondene nalokho okubizwa ngokuthi i-Sm, kubhekwa njengenkinobho yokuqala, lapho ama-initials e-KM ehlobene nekhoyili ye-contactor.

Kumele kuphethwe ngokuthi kumjikelezo wokulawula singabona ikhoyili ye-contactor nencazelo yayo (KM), noma kunjalo, amandla awakwazi ukuboniswa kukhoyili. Ngesizathu esifanayo, igama lothintana naye kufanele linikezwe bonke labo abathi oxhumana nabo abangaphakathi kwesekhethi yamandla.

Ama-contacters wesifunda sokulawula ngaso sonke isikhathi ngokuvamile yilabo abasizayo futhi endabeni yamandla lokhu akunjalo. Ngezikhathi ezithile bonke othintana nabo bavame ukufana futhi akunandaba ukusebenzisa eyodwa phezu komunye, nakuba lokhu kuzoncika ku-contactor.

Uma u-opharetha ecindezela u-“Sm” i-current izofinyelela kukhoyili futhi othintana naye aqhubeke nokuvula ukuvala oxhumana naye osizayo “KM”. Naphezu kokuthi inkinobho yokuqala yekhoyili yekhoyili ikhishwa, eqhubeka nokusebenza ngokusebenzisa "KM", lokhu kubizwa ngokuthi ukuziphakela noma impendulo.

Uma ubuzocindezela u-“Sp” manje, i-current izoyeka ukufinyelela ikhoyili, ngakho-ke isixhumi sizomisa injini.

Uxhumano Lwenkanyezi Nonxantathu

Kungashiwo ukuthi ama-windings we-motor yezigaba ezintathu ahlanganisa (3 windings) ngokuqondile, lezi zivumela ukuba zibalwe ngezindlela ezi-2 kakhulu, lawa mafomu okuxhuma aziwa ngokuthi:

  • uxhumano lwenkanyezi
  • Ukuxhumana kukanxantathu.

Ngalo mqondo, kubalulekile ukuveza ukuthi kumodi ye-delta, amakhoyili adinga i-voltage encoma ukuxhumana phakathi kwezigaba, ngenxa yalesi sizathu ku-230V (kusungulwa njengokufana). Njengamanje kuvamile ukuthi kube nezigaba ze-400V.

Uma uwaxhuma kwimodi yenkanyezi, amakhoyili azoqhubeka esebenza ngaphansi kwe-voltage yezimpande engaphansi kuka-3, ngalo mqondo kubalwa ukuthi i-127V. Ihlukaniswa kanjena i-Star Voltage ilingana ne-Delta Voltage/√3. Ngokuvamile, kuvame ukuthi enkanyezini enezigaba ezintathu kukhona i-230V. Ngalesi sizathu, kutholakala ukuthi inkanyezi yamanje ikhonjwa njengephindwe izikhathi ezi-3 kunaleyo ye-delta.

Ngokuqondene nama-impedances amathathu noma amakhoyili e-delta, kubhekwa ukuthi adinga izikhathi ezintathu zomugqa wamanje kunemodi yenkanyezi, ngokusekelwe ku-voltage efanayo yamapayipi. Kulokho okubizwa ngokuthi uxhumano lwenkanyezi-delta, kukhona ukwehla okusobala kokuqala kwamanje, le nqubo iyadingeka ukuze imoto ehambayo ifinyelele amandla adingekayo ukuze inkanyezi isebenze.

abathintwayo-8

Ngale ndlela, ama-motor ezigaba ezintathu avunyelwe ukuqala ekuqaleni kwimodi yenkanyezi futhi ngokuhamba kwesikhathi ushintsho luvela lapho ushintshela ku-delta, lolu hlobo lwenqubo luthatha imizuzwana emi-3 kuye kweyesi-4, eyaziwa ngaphansi kwegama elithi inkanyezi. -i-delta iqala.

Kuqukethe ukuthi ngesikhathi sokuqala i-motor ithola izinguquko kancane kancane, ngephethini yenkanyezi, futhi ngemva kwesikhathi esithile ifakwe egiyeni elivamile, ngesimo sikanxantathu. I-voltage kanye namandla okuqala enjini yenkanyezi ngokuvamile cishe izikhathi ezi-3 ngaphansi kwe-delta.

Ngokusho kwenjini izonyusa isivinini ingene kunxantathu ukuze ngale ndlela injini isebenze ngokujwayelekile. Yilokhu okwenza sikwazi ukufeza ukusebenza kahle kwenjini ngesikhathi iqala.

Yiziphi Izinzuzo Zokusebenzisa I-Contactor?

Inikeza ukuphepha ku-opharetha njengoba uma enza ama-maneuvers nabathintana nabo, uwenzela kude. I-motor kanye ne-contactor ingaba kude no-opharetha, kudingekile kuphela ukuthi u-opharetha asondele ekushintsheni kokuqala ukuze akwazi ukucupha injini futhi njengoba sibonile, le ngxenye iyona esebenza kuma-voltage aphansi kune kumandla (lapho injini kanye/noma isixhumi sikhona).

Isibonelo salokhu sibonakala lapho iswishi yokuqalisa ikhombisa ibanga elingaba ngu-1 km kanti i-contactor itholakala kumotho noma iseduze kakhulu nayo. Kulesi simo, isifunda esitholakala ku-switch sidinga isifunda esiwusizo, esivumela i-voltage encishisiwe kanye namandla aphansi.

Endabeni yezintambo ezixhunywe ku-contactor kanye ne-motor, zidinga ukulinganisa okuqondile, okuvela ku-contactor kuya ku-motor, le nqubo ibangela ukuthi kokubili kube kufushane kakhulu. Ngakho-ke kungenzeka ukuthi uyazibuza ukuthi kunanzuzoni lokhu? Hhayi-ke, kuwukonga okuhle ngokwezindleko zezintambo noma ama-conductor ngokwawo. Funa ukwazi Uthuthwa kanjani ugesi.

Ngakho-ke ungacabanga ukuthi bekufanele siqale injini ngqo ngaphandle kwesidingo se-contactor, kusukela ekushintsheni, okuyiyona okufanele ibe nkulu kakhulu futhi ibize kakhulu, kuya ku-motor, zonke lezi zintambo. babenamandla futhi kwakuzodingeka balinganise i-1 km ubude, ngakho izindleko ngokwabashayeli zizoba phezulu kakhulu. Ezinye izinzuzo ezitholiwe yilezi:

  • Ukonga isikhathi uma wenza amasu amade.
  • Inikeza ithuba lokukwazi ukulawula ukuqala kwe-motor kusuka kumaphuzu ahlukene.
  • I-automation yokuqalisa injini.
  • Iphinde inikeze ngokuzenzakalelayo nokulawula inani elikhulu lezinhlelo zokusebenza, le nqubo ifinyelelwa ngamadivaysi asizayo. Esinye sezibonelo singaba: ukugcwaliswa okuzenzakalelayo komthombo wamanzi, kanye nokulawulwa kwezinga lokushisa kumahhavini, njll.

Indlela Yokwenza Ukukhetha Okungcono Kakhulu Koxhumana Nabo

Lapho sikhetha othintana nabo ukuze baqondise ama-motor, kufanele sicabangele lezi zinto ezilandelayo esizozisho:

  • Okokuqala, i-Nominal Voltage namandla omthwalo, okungukuthi, weMoto.
  • Endaweni yesibili kukhona iVoltage and Frequency of the Coil power supply, kanye nengxenye ngayinye ehambisanayo yesiyingi esiyisekela.

Ikilasi Lokuqala Izimoto: Lokhu kungaba Okuqondile, Inkanyezi - Unxantathu, njll.

Izimo zokusebenza: Lezi zivame ukujwayelekile, ziqinile noma zidlulele. Okungase kube okokushisa kukagesi, amakheshi, ngisho nama-cranes, ngaphezu kwemishini yokunyathelisa, njll.