Ama-motor kagesi asebenza nezinhlobo ezahlukene zama-currents noma izigaba, ezizonquma ukusebenza kwazo namandla okusebenza. Kulesi sihloko uzofunda konke mayelana injini yezigaba ezintathu, ukuthi isebenza kanjani, izingxenye zayo nokunye okuningi.

injini yezigaba ezintathu

Lawa ma-motor aklanyelwe ukusebenza ne-alternating current (AC) yezigaba ezintathu, yamanje eyayisetshenziswa ezinhlelweni eziningi zezimboni.

Izinjini zokungeniswa kwezigaba ezintathu zisebenza ngenxa yezenzakalo zokungeniswa kukagesi, ezixhumanisa ugesi nozibuthe. Yizona ezisetshenziswa kakhulu ezimbonini ngenxa yobulula bazo, ukuqina nokugcinwa kwazo kalula.

Ukuze ufunde kabanzi mayelana nokusebenza kwayo, kuyadingeka ukuba kucace mayelana nemibono yesigaba sesithathu esishintshanayo insimu yamanje nekazibuthe.

I-Triphasic current

Ngokuphambene nezinhlelo zamanje ezishintshayo zesigaba esisodwa, ezisebenzisa isigaba kuphela nokungathathi hlangothi njengamakhondatha kagesi ukuze usatshalaliswe futhi usetshenziswe, amasistimu ezigaba ezintathu asebenzisa amakhondatha kagesi amathathu noma amane, izigaba ezintathu noma izigaba ezintathu kanye nokungathathi hlangothi.

Njengoba isebenza ngezigaba ezintathu, ngaphezu kokungathathi hlangothi, ama-voltages angakhiqizwa ahlukile, kusukela ku-230 volts phakathi kokungathathi hlangothi - isigaba kuze kufike ku-400 volts phakathi kwesigaba - isigaba.

I-voltage phakathi kwezigaba ezimbili ihlala iyimpande ephakeme ngokuphindwe kathathu kunesigaba esingathathi hlangothi: 300/230= √3

Amandla kagesi aphezulu kakhulu asetshenziswa embonini nasezimotweni, aphansi kakhulu ukusetshenziswa komndeni nokukhanyisa. Le generator ekhiqiza amandla ezigaba ezintathu ibizwa ngokuthi i-alternator futhi ikwazi ukukhiqiza amandla amathathu e-electromotive (Emf= voltages) esigabeni ngasinye ngamavelu esikhashana:

e1= Isilinganiso esiphezulu esingu-X sinus Wt.

e2= I-Emaximum X sine (Wt-120°).

e3= I-Emaximum X sine (Wt-240°).

Lokhu kusho ukuthi amanani ama-voltage (3) «esinye sesigaba ngasinye» angaphandle komongo ngo-120° ngokuhlobene namanye okwamanje. Kwenzeka okufanayo kuwo womathathu amandla.

Izinzuzo

  • Izinjini zamanje ezishintshana ngezigaba ezintathu zinenzuzo yokukwazi ukukhiqiza ama-voltage amabili ahlukene ngaphakathi kwenjini efanayo.
  • Ama-Alternator, ama-transformer, namamotho e-AC ezigaba ezintathu asebenza kangcono, alula, futhi angabizi kakhulu.

Lokhu kubhekwa ngokuyisisekelo kuma-motor induction ezigaba ezintathu, asetshenziswa kakhulu engxenyeni yezimboni.

Phakathi kwezinhlobo eziphambili zezinjini ezikhona, kukhona i-single-phase motor, lezi yizo ezineziqalo ezimbili, eziyenza ibe namandla kakhulu, ngokukhulu. isici samandla ngakho-ke ukusebenza okuphezulu.

Lezi zinhlelo zezigaba ezintathu zithola ukudlulisa amandla kagesi anokonga okubalulekile ekuhlukaniseni ama-conductor.

Lezi zinzuzo zisho ukuthi okwamanje wonke amandla kagesi asatshalaliswa, adluliselwe, akhiqizwe futhi adliwe ngendlela yezigaba ezintathu ezishintshanayo.

Inkambu kazibuthe

Yindawo yendawo lapho kukhona amandla kazibuthe, amandla ahehayo noma axosha izinsimbi. Ngokufanayo, zingavezwa njengendawo lapho kukhona uzibuthe (amandla kazibuthe).

Uzibuthe unendawo ewuzungezile yokubeka noma iyiphi into eyinsimbi, ukhangwa uzibuthe. Inkambu ingenziwa samuntu ngemigqa eyaziwa ngokuthi imigqa yamagnetic field.

Amandla okukhangwa ngawo intokazibuthe uma ikhishelwa endaweni kazibuthe, azoncika emandleni uzibuthe nendawo esensimini lapho ibekwe khona. Amandla okukhanga eduze kukazibuthe ngeke afane nasemaphethelweni awo wendawo kazibuthe.

Insimu kazibuthe ayenziwa kuphela umazibuthe, kodwa futhi ngumqhubi owela manje, aphinde akhiqize insimu yamagnetic ezungezile, efana naleyo yamagnetic.

Uma umqhubi elimele ngendlela yekhoyili, inkambu kazibuthe izoba nkulu, lezi zihibe zizophinde zilimale, ngokulandelayo, zizungeze i-electromagnet, ngaleyo ndlela insimu kazibuthe izoba nkulu kakhulu. Lezi zinkundla kazibuthe zikhiqizwa ngogesi.

injini yezigaba ezintathu

Amajeneretha e-magnetic field anezigxobo ezimbili, ezinhle nezimbi, uma singakwazi ukujoyina izindawo ezimbili ezifanayo zamagnetic kusukela esigxotsheni esifanayo, amasimu akhiqiza amandla aphikisayo, manje uma izigxobo zamasimu ziphambene, amandla okukhanga akhiqizwa phakathi kwabo. amasimu.

Ku-conductor ukuthi i-current cross cross, izigxobo zamasimu akhiqizwayo zizoxhomeka ekuqondeni lapho i-current ingena khona futhi ishiya umqhubi.

Kuzibuthe, izigxobo ezilinganayo ziyaxoshana futhi izigxobo eziphambene zidonselana, ngale migomo ecacile, kuyoba lula ukuqonda ukusebenza kwe-motor yezigaba ezintathu.

Umsebenzi

Ama-motor asynchronous ezigaba ezintathu anezingxenye zawo ezibalulekile:

stator

Iqukethe i-casing lapho kushunyekwa khona umqhele wamashidi ensimbi ye-silicon anikezwe ukusikeka.

Lokhu kuphenduka kwamakhoyili atholakala ekusikeni okushiwo okwakha izibuthe zikagesi ngokuya ngamasekhethi nezigaba eziqukethwe yinethiwekhi, lapho umshini uzoxhunywa khona. Injini enezigaba ezintathu zamakhoyili anesekhethi eyodwa ikhoyili ngayinye, ngakho iqukethe amasekhethi amaningana.

injini yezigaba ezintathu

Ama-electromagnets akha i-stator yiwo azokwenza insimu yamagnetic ejikelezayo, yingakho ebizwa nangokuthi ama-inductors, ngoba azofaka umsinga kwenye ingxenye noma azokwenza ukujikeleza. 

Ukujikeleza

Itholakala ngaphakathi kwe-stator, iyisikhungo samapuleti ensimbi e-silicon estakiwe ahlanganisa isilinda noma ikhoyili kagesi kuye ngohlobo lwe-rotor, i-squirrel cage rotor noma i-rotor yesilonda.

Iphinde ibizwa nge-armature, ngoba lapho ama-voltage, ama-currents kanye nokujikeleza kwe-motor kuyayengelwa. Lena ingxenye ehambayo yenjini.

i-rotor yekheji

Le rotor iyona esetshenziswa kakhulu, iyi-rotor enochungechunge lwe-aluminium noma imigoqo yethusi (ama-conductor) azungeze isifunda esifushane ngamasongo amabili ekugcineni kwawo. Kuyi-rotor enamakhoyili nxazonke.

Inkambu kazibuthe ejikelezayo ihlukanisa izinduku noma amapuleti asuka ku-motor, lapho amandla e-electromotive noma i-voltage izokwenziwa ukuthi, ngokuba i-short-circuited, ikhiqize ukubonga kwamanje kubo, yathi yamanje ikhiqiza insimu ezolandela i-stator, ijika. i-rotor.

okutholakele ngokomzimba

Ukuze kudalwe i-motor yezigaba ezintathu, ukwambulwa kwezazi ze-physics ezintathu kwakudingeka:

UFadaday

Uveze ukuthi i-conductor kagesi enyakazayo ngaphakathi kwendawo kazibuthe (umazibuthe) ikhiqiza i-voltage noma ukuhluka okungaba khona (ddp) emikhawulweni yayo yomibili.

Le voltage iyashukunyiswa futhi ibizwa nge-electromotive force (emf) hhayi i-voltage. Uma sibeka iziphetho ndawonye, ​​​​njengakwisifunda esifushane noma nge-bulb, i-current ihamba ngomqhubi.

Phakathi naleso sikhathi, uma sihambisa umqhubi, sizosika imigqa yamagnetic field futhi amandla e-electromotive azogcinwa ekugcineni komqhubi, uma isifunda esifushane sivulekile. Uma sixhuma isibani kumqhubi, amandla e-electromotive akhiqiza i-current ngokusebenzisa umqhubi.

La mandla kagesi akhiqizwa ku-loop uma eshukunyiswa abizwa ngokuthi amandla e-electromotive induced (emf), kumane nje kuyi-voltage phakathi kwamaphoyinti amabili: Uma isifunda esifushane senzeka kumaluphu, kuzokhiqizwa i-current ebangelwa iluphu, eyaziwa ngokuthi i-short-circuit. okwamanje.

Nikola Tesla

U-Tesla uveze ukuthi ukushintshana kwamanje kwezigaba ezintathu ezihamba esigabeni ngasinye ngaphakathi kwekhoyili kumele kukhiqize isikhala sikazibuthe, wabe esephetha ngokuthi ukuhlangana kukazibuthe nekhoyili kuyalingana nozibuthe kagesi.

Uma i-current inenani lika-zero (0) ingekho inkambu kuleso sigaba, izokhula futhi kumjikelezo ngamunye wengxenye yegagasi inkambu ishintsha isiqondiso.

Izibonelo:

  • Iphuzu elingu-N° 1: Kunezinkambu ezintathu ezakhiwe, ezimbili zinegethivu ezisungulwe yi-L2 ne-L3 kanye ne-positive L1 ukuthi, njengoba yamanje inenani eliphakeme kakhulu, izoba insimu enkulu kunazo zonke i-L1 engayisungula. Ukwenza isamba sevekhtha yezinkambu (3) kuzosinika ivekhtha yombala omnyama ngaphakathi kwenjini.
  • Iphuzu elingu-N° 2: Kulokhu kuzoba ngu-L2 ozokwakha insimu enkulu kunayo yonke bese kuthi ababili abalandelayo kube abangemuhle. Uma sengeza okuthathu, umphumela uba i-vector kuleso simo. Uma ungaqinisekisa ukuthi iphenduke kanjani.
  • Iphuzu elingu-N° 3: Inkambu enkulu kunazo zonke yakhiwa yi-L3 futhi okulandelayo okubili kuzoba negethivu. Qhubeka uzungezisa i-vector yasensimini kanye nenkundla.

Insimu kazibuthe ekhiqizwa ku-motor stator iyanyakaza futhi imigqa yamagnetic field izosika amashidi ensimbi (ama-conductors) we-squirrel-cage rotor, ikhiqize amandla e-electromotive induced (emf) phakathi kwawo, kodwa ibe i-short-circuited ukuthi kuzoba yini. okhiqizwayo kuzoba umsinga owenziwe ozohambisa amapuleti enjini.

injini yezigaba ezintathu

I-Oersted

Wathola ukuthi uma ikhondukta okuhamba ngayo amandla kagesi ingaphakathi kwendawo kazibuthe futhi imigqa yayo ihlukanisa i-conductor, isuka iqonde endaweni kazibuthe futhi kwakheka amandla ku-conductor ayisiza ukuba ihambe.

Okusho ukuthi, umqhubi we-x wamanje + insimu kazibuthe = ukunyakaza komqhubi.

Ngempela, umsinga ohamba nge-conductor, lokho okwakha imvelo yayo inkambu kazibuthe, njengoba u-Oersted embule, futhi lapho zombili izinkambu zihlangana, ukujikeleza kuyakhiqizwa (njengokungathi zingozibuthe ababili).

Ungakhohlwa, omazibuthe ababili babhekene = amandla okukhanga noma ukunengwa.

Ngokusho kwesiqondiso samanje ngokusebenzisa umqhubi, faka noma ushiye, insimu eyakhiwe izoba ne-polarity eyodwa noma okuphambene, ngenxa yalesi sizathu, amasimu adonselana futhi axoshe omunye nomunye, okwenza umqhubi anyakaze ohlangothini olulodwa noma kwenye. ., lokhu kuzoncika ekuqondeni kwe-current ku-conductor.

Uma umqhubi bekuyiluphu, amabutho amabili aphikisanayo ayezokwakha kuwo, ngoba ngakolunye uhlangothi lweluphu, umsinga uzoba nesiqondiso esisodwa (ungena) futhi ngakolunye uhlangothi uzoba nokuphambene (amaqabunga) ngakolunye. ohlangothini lweluphu, iluphu, efaka iluphu ukuze ijikelezise. Amandla amabili akhiqiza isikhashana noma ezimbili ezikhiqiza ukuphenduka kweluphu.

Inductor

I-Passive element ye-Electric Circuit, leyo, ngenxa yesenzo sokuzingenisa, ikhiqize amandla njengenkundla kazibuthe.

Lezi zingxenye ze- passive kanye ne-linear zizokwazi ukugcina nokukhulula amandla ngokususelwe kuzimo ezihlobene nezinkundla kazibuthe, ngokuyisisekelo, yonke i-inductor iwukugeleza kwentambo yokuqhuba.

Lesi sici sikagesi sikhiqiza ukungeniswa, ngakho-ke senza insimu kazibuthe lapho i-current idlula kuyo, noma yimuphi umqhubi angasetshenziswa ukwenza ikhoyili.

Inkambu Yezibuthe Ezungezayo

Lo mkhakha uzibuthe uzungeza ngendlela efanele futhi ukhiqizwa umshini kagesi oshintshanayo. U-Nikola Tesla wayithola ngo-1885, kuyisimo lapho injini yamanje eshintshanayo isekelwe khona.

Ngokusebenzisa i-alternating current kumakhoyili e-inductor, kukhiqizwa inkambu kazibuthe ezungezayo noma ezungezayo, imvamisa yayo ifana neyamanje eshintshanayo, lapho injini izogcinwa khona.

Kungani Imoto Yezigaba Ezintathu Izungeza?

NgokukaTesla, i-motor ine-stator enensimu yamagnetic ejikelezayo, enesibopho sokusika ama-conductor noma amapuleti e-rotor futhi lokhu kukhiqiza i-voltage evuselelwe ebizwa ngokuthi (emf).

UFaraday uthi uma la makhondakta noma amapuleti ejikeleza kancane, ukunyakaza kwamanje okuvuselelwe kukhiqizwa yiwo futhi kwakheka insimu kazibuthe endaweni ezungezile.

I-current ihamba phakathi kwamapuleti ezimoto (ama-conductors), akhiwa kulezi zindawo ezinozibuthe ezivuselelwe, futhi lezi zindawo zenza amandla amabili ku-rotor.

Insimu yamagnetic eyenziwe ku-rotor izoxosha lowo ku-stator, kodwa ngeke ikwazi ukuyifinyelela, ngoba imigqa yensimu ye-stator ngeke inqume amapuleti e-rotor futhi i-current induced izokhiqizwa.

Yingakho zibizwa ngokuthi ama-asynchronous motors, isivinini se-rotor kanye nenkundla ye-stator ayivumelanisiwe.

injini yezigaba ezintathu

Futhi, yaziwa ngokuthi i-induction motor, ngoba i-stator yenza i-current in rotor ukuthi isebenze, "I-Asynchronous Three-Phase Induction Motor".

Lokhu kwamanje kubangelwa amapuleti e-rotor, lokho abakwenzayo ngempela kuyinsimu yamagnetic ebazungezile, insimu ezohamba ngokuphenduka ukuze iqhubeke insimu ejikelezayo ye-stator yesigaba ezintathu. Kufana nokuba nozibuthe ababili.

Nakuba i-rotor yabonwa ngozibuthe, empeleni iyi-rotor ye-squirrel cage, kodwa njengoba sesibonile kakade, yakhiwe endaweni yamagnetic, nalokhu iba yizibuthe.

Lokhu sikuchaza njengokugudluzwa kwenjini engavumelanisi, njengokungafani kwalezi zivinini kuvezwe ngamaphesenti:

S= [(ns-n)/ns]x100

S= ukususwa ngephesenti %

ns= Isivinini esivumelanayo senkambu ye-Stator Magnetic.

n = Isivinini se-Rotor.

I-Three-Phase Asynchronous Motor ene-Short-Crcuit Rotor inesivinini esingu-3000 rpm.

Kuyini ukuhanjiswa kwe-rotor yomthwalo ogcwele uma kulinganiswa ne-tachometer, isivinini esingu-2850 rpm?

S= [3000-2850/3000]=5%

I-stator ye-asynchronous motor enezigaba ezintathu iphakanyiswa ngendlela yokuthi ama-windings amathathu abekwe asuswe ngu-120 °.

Ngayinye yazo ihlanganiswe nesigaba ngasinye sesistimu yezigaba ezintathu, yingakho imisinga esheshayo i1, i2 kanye ne-i3 izohamba ngayinye.

Njengoba umthwalo ku-motor rotor ukhula, ijubane le-rotor liyancipha futhi ukufuduka kuyanda. Lokhu kuvuselela i-stator flux ukunqamula imigoqo ye-rotor ngesivinini esigcwele, bese kwandisa okwamanje ku-rotor kanye nama-motor womabili ukunqoba kokubili ukuphikiswa komthwalo.

Yilokhu okuvamile ukwenzeka ekuqaleni kwabanye izinhlobo zezinjini zikagesi, efinyelela ukuqina okukhulu okumuncwa injini ngokuphindwe kasikhombisa kunalapho injini isebenza.

Ijubane le-motor alincishisiwe ngomthwalo owandayo, ukufuduka kwama-motor ezigaba ezintathu akukhulu kakhulu.

Isivinini sokuvumelanisa senkundla ejikelezayo sizoncika ezigxotsheni lapho ama-winding enziwa khona ku-stator kanye nemvamisa yayo kunethiwekhi exhunyiwe (i-Spain 50Hz eMelika 60Hz).

ns= (60xf)/p.

ns= Isivinini Esivumelanayo Senkambu Ezungezayo ye-Stator.

F= Imvamisa Yenethiwekhi Yezigaba Ezintathu e-Hertzies.

P= Inombolo Yamapheya e-Stator Pole. Inombolo yipheya yesigxobo esi-1 (eNyakatho-Ningizimu).

Isibonelo: Uma unomshini onezigxobo (izigxobo ezimbili) usebenza ngo-3000rpm ku-50Hz, namapheya amabili ezigxobo (izigxobo ezine) uzozungeza ku-1500 rpm, ukube unamapheya amathathu ezigxobo ngabe 1000rpm futhi ukube bekuyizigxobo ezine bekuzoba ngu-750rpm.

injini yezigaba ezintathu

Imvamisa ukwazi ijubane lemoto, itholakala epuleti lezimpawu, sizokwazi inani lezigxobo zenjini.

Amandla athathwe yi-motor (igama) angatholakala ku-nameplate, i-Torque = √3xVnxInxCoseFi, lawa mandla awadluliselwe ngokugcwele ku-motor shaft, ngenxa yokuthi ama-motor anokulahlekelwa. Ukulahlekelwa okukhulu yizi:

  • Ukulahlekelwa kwethusi: lezi zibangelwa ukumelana nama-windings.
  • Ilahlekile ku-iron: lezi zibangelwa i-hysteresis kanye nama-eddy currents noma i-Fauconlt.
  • Ukulahleka kwemishini: lokhu kungenxa yezakhi ezijikelezayo ngenxa yokungqubuzana.

Ukusebenza kahle (n) kwemoto yilokhu:

n= (Putil/Pasorbide)x100; ngamaphesenti.

Amandla awusizo, uma sibeka ukusebenza ngenombolo, hhayi ngephesenti. Isibonelo: Isivuno esingu-0,87 esikhundleni sika-87%, lokhu kuzoba:

Pu= nx Passorbid = nx√3xVnxInxCoseFi

Ungakhohlwa 1CV = 736w ezinkingeni eziningi amandla avezwa ngamandla ehhashi.

Umthwalo Wenjini, Ukusheshisa kanye Nokuqala

Lapho i-motor isuka e-idling iye ekudonseni umthwalo wemishini, i-rotor iyancipha, ngenxa ye-torque ekhiqizwa umthwalo ophambene nokujikeleza kwe-rotor.

Lokhu kubangela ukuzungeza okuhlobene kwendawo kazibuthe ezungezayo ngokuphathelene nama-conductor we-rotor ukwanda, okukhiqiza ukwanda kwe-emf kanye namandla amanje ama-motor conductors noma amapuleti.

I-torque ekhuphuka ku-rotor, i-torque yama-motor, incike kulokhu okwamanje, ukwanda kwe-torque eshiwo kukhiqizwa okulinganisa i-torque yokumelana ne-torque ye-motor.

Lokhu kusho ukuthi njengoba umthwalo wemoto ukhula, ukushelela kwe-motor kanye ne-torque nakho kuzokhuphuka. I-torque eyenziwa yi-induction motor ihlobene eduze nesivinini se-motor.

Ngenxa yokuthi ubudlelwano bayo bezibalo buyinkimbinkimbi ngandlela thize, ngokuvamile, ubudlelwano obushiwo buvezwa ngokucacile ngokusebenzisa ijika elithile le-torque-speed.

Le jika ye-torque-speed motor icacisa umsebenzi wayo. Isibonelo: ijika lenjini enetorque (Mm) kanye netorque engazweli (Mi) njengomsebenzi wejubane layo (n).

Ukusebenza okulinganiselwe

Ukunyakaza kwemoto ezimweni zomsebenzi wemvelo eyenzelwe yona. I-Torque Elinganiselwe, Ikalwe Okwamanje, Isivinini Esilinganiselwe, lezi zizoba khona njengamavelu ngaleso sikhathi.

Izinjini ekuqaleni zinezici ezihlukile zokuqalisa zize zibambe futhi zisebenze esimweni sazo esijwayelekile noma esilinganiselwe. I-torque yegama isinika amandla okuzisholo kanye namandla okuzisholo noma okuphambene nalokho.

I-Nominal Torque= Mn= Pu/w, amandla awusizo ahlukaniswe isivinini se-angular ngama-radians/isekhondi.

W= (2π/60)x Isivinini esilinganiselwe ku-rpm(n)

Mn= (Pux60)/(2πxn)= Newton x Amamitha.

Uma sikwazile ukwenza injini ithwale umthwalo nge-resist torque (Mi), injini izojwayela isivinini sayo ize ithole ukwenyuka kwe-torque ye-motor (Mn) ekwazi ukudonsa umthwalo oyimishini. Lokhu kubhekwa ngesivinini esibizwa ngokuthi (n).

Uma kusetshenziswa i-torque ephakeme kakhulu, ijubane lizoncipha kuze kube yilapho kufinyelelwa ibhalansi phakathi kwetorque yemoto kanye netorque emelana. Uma i-torque emelana inkulu kunesilinganiso esiphezulu esingakhuphuka injini, izoma (isibonelo: Mmax = 2,5Mn).

Ukuzivocavoca:

I-Asynchronous Motor enezigaba Ezintathu inezici ezilandelayo: Amandla kagesi amuncwa ku-8Km Network; 400V, 50Hz, Cos Fi 0.85, Ukusebenza Kahle 93%, Stator Winding Pole Pairs 2, Isiliphu Somthwalo Ogcwele 4%. Bala i-torque ye-rotor.

Ingaba yini i-torque yokuqala kanye ne-torque ephezulu yale motor uma isici sayo sokusebenza sinjengoba kukhonjisiwe esithombeni esingezansi?

Umlingiswa wama-motor kagesi uboniswa ku-nameplate yemoto ngokwayo, ikakhulukazi, njengama-voltages, amandla, imvamisa, isivinini, izinga lamandla, isigaba sokufakelwa, isici samandla, uhlobo lwenkonzo, phakathi kwabanye.

Ukuqina kwenjini kungafinyelelwa kumandla okuzisholo noma amuncwa.

I-Pn= √3xnxVnxInx CosFi, lapho n ingukusebenza kahle kwenjini lapho ilayisha ngokugcwele.

Ukuzivocavoca:

Uma ufisa ukuxhuma injini yokungenisa engu-400/230V, 400Hz, 50Kw elinganiselwe amandla ezigaba ezintathu, 22% (91,7) ukusebenza kahle kokulayisha, 0,917 factor kanye nesivinini esingu-0,88 rpm ku-2,945V Three-Phase Network. Izodonsa kangakanani kulayini?

Isixazululo: 39,35A

Uma ufuna ukuthola enye idatha, njengokuziphatha enkonzweni ezimisweni ezihlukene zokulayisha, kuzodingeka ukuthi uye ezicini ezinikezwe kulwazi lobuchwepheshe lwesilinganiso samamotho athengiswayo ezigaba ezintathu ze-asynchronous anama-rotor ajikelezayo wepheya. Izigxobo kanye ne-50Hz.

Lapha sishiya isheke ukuze sibone ukuthi idatha yokuqina ilungile yini.

Uxhumano Olusongayo

Lapho isigaba ngasinye se-motor yezigaba ezintathu sixhunywe khona kukhona amakhoyili, akha i-stator winding ye-asynchronous motor. Lolu hlelo luhlukaniswa ngamaqembu amathathu, ahlanganiswe phakathi nendawo ye-stator.

Ikhoyili ngayinye ye-stator, kunezintathu, inamahhafu amabili abekwe ezindaweni eziphambene ngokuphathelene ne-stator. Ingxenye ngayinye izokwenza isigxobo sensimu kazibuthe (eNyakatho-Ningizimu). Amakhoyili angu-120 ° ngaphandle kwesigaba namanye.

Isivivinyo sokuvala amakhoyili, lapho okwamanje idlula kubo, insimu yamagnetic ibangelwa i-rotor. Kulokhu, ikhoyili ngayinye inezigxobo ezimbili, ngakho-ke injini izoba yi-bipolar.

Injini enezigaba ezintathu

Amakhoyili axhunywe esigabeni esifanayo (konke), axhunywe ngokulandelana enza i-winging eyodwa enesiqalo nesiphetho. Igcina izigaba ezintathu, izimiso ezintathu kanye neziphetho ezintathu, sekukonke kuneziphetho eziyisithupha, amatheminali noma amatheminali okufanele axhunywe.

Noma ngabe amakhoyili esigaba esisodwa axhumene uma kuqhathaniswa (ngezinye izikhathi angaba) usengathola isiqalo esithathu neziphetho ezintathu.

Kukhona ama-winding of the pole pair motor ezimbili bese kuba inkanyezi kanye ne-delta yokuxhumana kwama-winding.

Amatheminali nawo ajwayele ukubizwa ngo-U1-V1-W1 ekuqaleni kwama-windings kanye no-U2-V2-W2 ekugcineni.

Ukuvunguza kwe-Motors yezigaba ezintathu

Kulokhu okuthunyelwe, okuningi kwalokhu kuphikisana ngeke kudalulwe, ngoba kuyisici esakhayo nesingathandeki. Sizoshiya isithombe sokuthi i-36 stator ibukeka kanjani ekuvuleni ngakunye njengoba ikhoyili eyodwa ingashintsha futhi amakhoyili azoshintsha ndawonye ngokuvumelana nokumelwa.

Inombolo yezigxobo ingaba ngamapheya amabili noma izigxobo ezine seziphelele. Kunezindlela ezimbili ezihlukene zokuhlanganisa noma zokuxhuma iziphetho zamakhoyili e-stator ezibizwa ngokuthi inkanyezi uxhumano kanye noxhumano lwe-delta.

Ukungalingani kukagesi phakathi kwalokhu okubili:

  • I-Voltage yeSigaba: Ingugesi phakathi kwesigaba nokungathathi hlangothi.
  • I-Line Voltage: I-voltage ekhona phakathi kwezigaba ezimbili. I-LV= √3xVF. Uma isigaba singama-230, ulayini ungu-400V

Hlanganisa i-Delta Motor Windings

Lapha amakhoyili ahlala exhaswe yi-voltage yenethiwekhi yokuphakela amandla. Uma ukunikezwa kwamandla kwezigaba ezintathu kunethiwekhi kungu-400V (Vline), amakhoyili azohlala egqilazwe amandla kagesi awo angu-400V.

Fuse i-Windings ye-Star Motor

Ngokuba nephuzu elingathathi hlangothi kumongo elihlanganisa zonke iziphetho zamakhoyili, ahlala egqilazwe amandla kagesi ngokwawo aphakathi nesigaba nokungathathi hlangothi kwenethiwekhi, VF= VL/√3, okuthi uma i-VF I-400V ihlala isigqila ku-230V.

I-voltage yokuhlinzeka kufanele icatshangelwe ukuze ixube enkanyezini noma e-delta.

Nazi ezinye izibonelo zokusebenza kwamakhoyili kumotho, njengesiqalo senkanyezi:

Injini amakhoyili wayo asebenza ku-400V ekuhambeni kwayo okujwayelekile (okuvamile), uma ufuna ukuhlanganisa ugesi wezigaba ezintathu ongu-400V, singakwenza ku-delta.

Futhi enkanyezini, kodwa bazosebenza ku-voltage ephansi kunaleyo ehambisanayo, amakhoyili azosebenza ku-230V.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, uma kuyinjini esebenza ngamakhoyili angu-230V, uma sifuna ukuyihlanganisa nogesi ongu-400V, singakwenza kuphela enkanyezini, uma sikwenza ngonxantathu, amakhoyili ayancibilika.

I-coil working voltage: i-voltage ingatholakala epuleti lezimpawu. Futhi kuvame ukubonakaliswa ngale ndlela elandelayo:

I-200V/400 lokhu kukhombisa ukuthi ingahlanganiswa nenkanyezi ku-400V, ku-delta ingaba ku-220V. Ukusebenza kwemvelo kanye ne-voltage ephezulu esekelwa amakhoyili kuhlale kuyilowo okhonjiswe kunxantathu, kulokhu kungu-200V. Asikwazi neze ukweqa le voltage kuma-motor windings.

Uma sivumela le moto ukuthi ihlangane nenethiwekhi yezigaba ezintathu engu-400V phakathi nezigaba.

Njengoba ngizokwenza? Ngokwemvelo enkanyezini, endaweni eyi-delta amakhoyili ayeyoncibilika, ngoba ayezohlala ku-400V.

Kubalulekile ukubheka ukuxhumana kwamakhoyili ngaphambi kokuqala injini enezigaba ezintathu.

Ngokuvamile ama-motor avame ukuba ngu-400V/690V, ngenxa yokuthi amanethiwekhi ezigaba ezintathu angama-400V, yingakho ekwazi ukuhlanganisa izigaba ezintathu kunxantathu nasenkanyezini, noma kunjalo, kulokhu amakhoyili ahlala ku-230V. ukusebenza nge-voltage ephansi kunokujwayelekile.

Singaphetha ngala maphuzu alandelayo:

  • 220/380V, ingahlanganiswa ibe yinethiwekhi engunxantathu oqondile ongu-220V. Inkanyezi kuphela kunethiwekhi ephakeme kuno-380V, ayilokothi ibe ku-delta kunethiwekhi engu-380V.
  • 380/660V, ingahlanganiswa ibe i-delta engu-380V kanye nenethiwekhi yenkanyezi engu-660V. Uma siyihlanganisa enkanyezini kunethiwekhi engu-380V, amakhoyili azohlala ku-230V.
  • 400/690V, ingahlanganiswa ne-delta engu-400V kanye nenkanyezi engu-690V. Uma siyihlanganisa enkanyezini, kunethiwekhi engu-400V amakhoyili azohlala esebenza ku-230V.

Ebhokisini letheminali, amamotho ahlukahlukene aphuma amatheminali ayisithupha afanele amawindi amathathu enjini, kanye netheminali yaphansi. Ukuthambekela kwamatheminali kwenziwa njalo ngendlela efanayo, ngokulandela imithetho yamazwe ngamazwe.

Ukuze uthole uxhumano lwenkanyezi, vele uhlanganise ama-jumpers okugcina e-ZXY ndawonye. Ukuxhumana kwe-delta kufinyelelwa ngohlelo ngokujoyina ama-terminal jumpers (VZ), (VX), (WY).

injini yezigaba ezintathu

Ukuze uguqule isiqondiso sokujikeleza kwemoto, kufanele uguqule ukwakheka kwesinye sezigaba.

Ama-asynchronous motors aqala ngokungasizwa, kodwa kudinga ukuhlola amandla ogesi akhiqizwa ku-rotor ekuqaleni ngoba angenziwa.

Ibhokisi leTheminali

Iklanywe ngendlela yokuthi ukuvikelwa kwabaqhubi besigaba ngokumelene nokulimala kwe-dielectric ngaphakathi kwebhokisi kuqinisekiswa ngokuyinhloko ngokuhlukana okuqinile.

Izingxenye Eziyisisekelo Eziningi ze-Electric Motor

Njengemishini eminingi kagesi, i-motor kagesi yenziwa yi-Magnetic Circuit kanye nezimbili zikagesi, eyodwa etholakala engxenyeni esunguliwe (stator) kanti enye engxenyeni ehambayo (rotor).

Ukuqala injini

Uma i-motor ixhunywe ku-Mains, idonsa i-current enamandla kusukela emugqeni ngesikhathi iqalwa, okungase kuphazamise ukuqina kwemishini yokuxhuma, kuhlanganise nolayini ohlinzeka ngogesi.

Lawa misinga enamandla alayisha ngokweqile imigqa yokusabalalisa, ukuze akwazi ukukhiqiza i-voltage ephansi kanye nokushisa ngokweqile kumakhondakta ahlukene emigqa eshiwo.

Kungakho i-REBT (Electronic Low Voltage Regulation) idala imithetho yokwehlisa isiqalo samanje sibe ngamavelu anengqondo.

Emiyalweni yezobuchwepheshe, isilinganiso esiphezulu sivulwa phakathi kwamanje kokuqala kanye nomthwalo ogcwele wezigaba ezintathu ezishintshayo zamanje.

Imvamisa, ukuze kuncishiswe lokhu kumanje kokuqala kwenjini, kwenziwa ngokunciphisa i-voltage yayo. Kufanele kucatshangelwe ukuthi ukuncishiswa kwe-motor voltage yezigaba ezintathu nakho kunciphisa i-torque yayo.

Kunezindlela eziningana zokunciphisa ukuqala kwamanje ngokunciphisa i-voltage ye-motor yezigaba ezintathu:

injini yezigaba ezintathu

  • I-Star-delta iqala.
  • Ukuqala ngama-stator resistors.
  • Qala nge-autotransformer.
  • I-Static boot

Bheka amajika angawodwana emotho enezigaba ezintathu kanye namandla adonswa injini ngesikhathi ngasinye. Leli ijika ngalinye lokuqala le-asynchronous ezintathu-phase motor:

IA= Ukuqala Amandla.

IN= Amandla Okuzisholo Ephuzwini Lomsebenzi.

MA: Iqala iTorque.

MB= I-Acceleration Torque (MmXML).

MK= Inani eliphakeme kakhulu le-torque.

MI = Layisha iTorque.

MM: I-Motor Torque (Indawo Yokusebenzela).

MN: I-Torque Yokulayisha Okuyigama.

n: Isivinini (inani lamanje).

nN: Isivinini Sokuzisholo endaweni Yokusebenzela.

nS: Isivinini sokuvumelanisa. (nS-nN= Isivinini Sokushelela).

Izinhlobo ze-Boot

Enye yamaphuzu abaluleke kakhulu we-motor kagesi yesigaba ezintathu ukuqala, okungeyona into ehlukile kubo bonke futhi kuye ngokuthi uhlobo lokuqala, amandla ayo kanye nokusebenza kunqunywa.

Ukuqala Okuqondile

Yiyo ezibonakalisa ngesikhathi sokuhlinzeka nge-voltage yayo yegama ngqo kumotho: ivunyelwe kuphela kumamotho anamandla alinganiselwe, i-4 noma i-5 CV kanye nesilinganiso sawo se-Istart/Inominal sifana noma ngaphansi kuka-4,5.

Ama-motor analolu hlobo lokuqala adweba inani eliphakeme lamanje ngesikhathi sokuqala, ukwakheka kwezikhathi ezi-4,5 kuye kweziyi-7 amandla okuzisholo futhi lokhu kukhiqiza i-torque yokuqala ekwakhekeni kwe-torque eyi-1,5 noma izikhathi ezi-2, lokhu kuzovumela lezi motors ukuthi iqalwe ngomthwalo ogcwele.

Lokhu kuqalisa kuzosetshenziswa kunkanyezi noma ku-delta, ngokuya ngamavelu we-voltage yama-mains kanye ne-voltage elinganiselwe yemoto kumodeli yokuxhuma ngayinye. Lokhu kuxhumana kwenkanyezi noma kwe-delta kwenziwa kuMotor ebhodini layo letheminali efanayo.

Ekumeleleni amandla nokulawula ukuqala okuqondile kwe-asynchronous motor enezigaba ezintathu ezine-rotor emfushane.

Ukucindezela i-S2 kuvula ikhoyili ye-contactor ye-KM1 bese kubangela ukuthi injini yezigaba ezintathu ivaleke.

Futhi ukuxhumana okuvulekile kwe-KM1:23-14 kuyavala futhi noma i-S2 icindezelwe, ikhoyili ihlala ixhaswe othintana naye osuka kuyo (impendulo noma i-latching).

Ngokuvamile, lesi sifanekiso sithuthukiswa ngezinto ezivikelayo ezifana neswishi yokuvikela imoto noma i-magneto-thermal switch ukuze kuvikelwe injini kumaza namasekhethi amafushane kanye nokudluliswa kwe-thermal ukuze kuphinde kuvikelwe injini ekushiseni ngokweqile.

I-Magneto-thermal Switch noma Ukhiye Oshisayo

Kuyindlela efanelekile yokumisa amandla kagesi a simulator yesifunda ugesi uma udlula amanani athile aphezulu. Isekelwe emiphumeleni emibili ebangelwa ukuhamba kwamandla kumjikelezo: I-magnetic kanye ne-thermal.

Umphumela wamagnetic

Eyaziwa nangokuthi amandla noma uzibuthe, akuyona into engaphezu kwesenzakalo semvelo, esingaba khona kumaminerali amaningi noma izinto ezibonakalayo, ikakhulukazi kumagnethi, ezenziwe nge-cobalt, insimbi ne-nickel, konke okwakha insimu kazibuthe.

umphumela oshisayo

Lapho i-current ihamba ngohlelo, iyashisa, kuye ngamandla kanye nesikhathi samanje esidlula ukumelana.

Umshini, ngakho-ke, wakhiwe izingxenye ezimbili, i-electromagnetic sheet kanye neshidi le-bimetallic, ekuxhumekeni okulandelanayo futhi lapho imanje eqondiswe kumthwalo idlula khona. Lezi zifana namafuse kanye i-transformer yezigaba ezintathu, Banomthwalo wemfanelo wokuvikela ukufakwa ekulayisheni ngokweqile kanye namasekethe amafushane.

Ukusebenza

Ukuze uqonde ukusebenza kwe-circuit breaker, kuyadingeka ukuqonda inqubo eyenzeka engxenyeni ngayinye yayo.

Isifunda esifushane

Okwamanje lapho i-current ihamba nge-electromagnet, i-voltage ikhiqizwa evula othintana naye, ngokusebenzisa idivayisi, lokhu kungavulwa kuphela uma i-current ehambayo inkulu kunomkhawulo obekiwe.

Isethi yokungenelela ephezulu ingenziwa izikhathi ezingu-30, inikeze incwadi ezingeni ngalinye lokuqina ngaphakathi kokushintsha, isenzo sayo siyingxenye yesine yomzuzwana, ngakho ukusabela kuyashesha kakhulu.

Umsebenzi wale ngxenye, njengoba negama layo lisho, ukunikeza isivikelo uma kwenzeka isifunda esifushane noma enyeizingozi zikagesi, Ngokuqondile kule ndawo lapho kunokwanda okusheshayo kokujikeleza kukagesi.

Isifunda esifushane senzeka lapho isigaba nokungathathi hlangothi kuhlangana ngephutha noma iphutha, okwandisa amandla amanje ngokushesha okukhulu.

Gcwalisa ngokweqile

Le ngxenye ibonakala ngokuba bomvu ngaphakathi kwesishintshi, lapho idlula izinga lokushisa eliphezulu, ikhubaza, ishintsha indawo, okuzokwenza ukuthi othintana naye avuleke ngomshini ohambisanayo. Lokhu kuqamba kwenziwa ngento eyaziwa ngokuthi ishidi le-bimetal.

Izinga lokulayisha ngokweqile, naphezu kokudlula amaleveli avunyelwe, ngingashintsha, asengaphansi kwezinga lokungenela.

Umsebenzi wesistimu yokulayisha ngokweqile ukuvikela i-motor yezigaba ezintathu uma kukhona ukwanda kwesidingo sikagesi lapho amadivaysi amaningi exhunyiwe ngesikhathi esisodwa.

Idivayisi eshisayo nekazibuthe isebenza ndawonye ukuze ivikele isistimu ekukhuphukeni kwamanje okungalimaza idivayisi.

Nqamula ngesandla

Idivayisi inomsebenzi wokunqamula othomathikhi, nokho, uma leli phutha likhona ithuba lokusika ukugeleza kwamanje ngesandla, ngaphezu kokuhlomisa kabusha idivayisi, nokho-ke lo msebenzi ngeke ube nomthelela uma ukunqanyulwa kukude kakhulu ngesikhathi sokulayisha ngokweqile noma kufushane. isifunda.

I-othomathikhi kangangokuthi idivayisi iyakwazi ukukhulula i-lever, ngisho noma ikhiyiwe ngesandla, lokhu kungenxa yekhono layo elizenzakalelayo lokukhulula i-lever futhi linqume okwamanje.

Ubumbano

Kukhona amadivaysi e-single-pole kanye nezigaba ezintathu ze-circuit breaker zokuvikelwa kwamanje, zonke zisebenza ngesimiso esifanayo, nakuba ezinye zinqamula ukunikezwa kwamanje okukodwa kanti ezinye zivala zonke izinto ezifakiwe.

Uma i-magneto-thermal switch inqamula zonke izinto ezikhona manje ezigabeni kanye nokungathathi hlangothi, kubizwa ngokuthi i-omnipolar switch.

Izici

Okuchaza uhlobo lokushintsha izici ezifana nenani lamaza nama-amps, amandla ohambo kanye nejika elisikiwe.

I-Star-Delta iyaqala

Lena yindlela esetshenziswa kakhulu futhi eyaziwayo kunazo zonke. Isetshenziselwa ukuqalisa izinjini ezinamandla kagesi angaphansi kuka-11Kw.

injini yezigaba ezintathu

Uma senza uxhumano lwenkanyezi, amakhoyili ahlala esebenza ngaphansi kwe-voltage yezimpande engaphansi ngokuphindwe kathathu kunase-delta.

Ukuqala kwe-Delta kudinga amandla aphindwe kathathu kunakuqala kwenkanyezi, ku-voltage yamapayipi amakhulu. Uma uyixhuma i-star-delta, yamanje iphindwe kathathu kuneyenjini eqala injini ngenkanyezi.

Ebengakwenza kumamotho anezigaba ezintathu ukuwaqala enkanyezini futhi ngemva kwesikhathi esithile, ayimise ku-delta (imizuzwana emi-3 noma emi-4). Ibizwa ngokuthi unxantathu wenkanyezi.

Isekelwe ekuqaleni kwenjini, siyaqhubeka nokuthwebula ama-revolutions kancane, ngephethini yenkanyezi futhi ngemva kwesikhathi esithile iqhubekela egiyeni lemvelo kunxantathu.

Bheka amagrafu noma amajika alolu hlobo lwebhuthi.

injini yezigaba ezintathu

Ukuqala kuyodingeka kwenze uxhumano ku-contactor K1 kanye ne-K3: (inkanyezi) ngemva kwemizuzwana embalwa bazokwazi ukuxhuma ku-delta nge-K1 futhi i-K2 ibizwa ngokuthi i-circuit yamandla (okukhiphayo).

Yilokhu okufanekiselwa isilawuli noma isifunda somyalo sibukeka.

Ukushintsha nje okushisayo okumisa injini uma izinga lokushisa liphezulu kakhulu. I-S1 izoba inkinobho yokuqala futhi i-S2 ibe inkinobho yokumisa.

Ikhoyili ye-KA1 iyireyi futhi ihlanganiswa ngesikhathi sokunqanyulwa lapho ikhoyili ye-KA1 ikhoyili ishintshashintsha ngokuma (i-KM3 iyekisiwe futhi i-KM2 icushiwe).

Lo othintana naye wenza umehluko ukusuka kunkanyezi kuye ku-delta. Isixhumi se-KM1 sisebenza ngaso sonke isikhathi noma sinquma injini nge-S2 noma uhambo oludluliswayo olushisayo.

injini yezigaba ezintathu

Amandla kagesi

Amandla kagesi achazwa njengengxenye yamandla ehlangabezana nendlela kagesi yesikhathi. Ngemva kokuqonda amafomula, ungangena endabeni.

Lena indlela yokubala i- amandla kagesi angaba khona:

Ugesi: amandla nokumelana

Kuthiwa: Amandla alingana namandla ahlukaniswa yisikhathi. P=V*I.

Akhiwe ngamagama: Amandla(P) alingana ne-voltage (V) ephindaphindwa yamanje (I).

Yakhelwe ngamagama: I-Watt (w) ilingana ne-voltage (V) ephindaphindwa yamanje (I).

I-Star-Delta Eqala Ngokuhlehliswa Kokuzungezisa

I-motor ingasebenza ngokwewashi noma ngokuphambene newashi, lokhu kuzoncika emiyalweni enikezwe ama-pushbutton. Singaqala inkanyezi-delta ngokwewashi futhi siqale i-delta ngokuphikisana newashi.

I-Stator Resistance Pickup

Inesibopho sokunciphisa i-voltage ekhiqizwa yizici ezixhunywe ngokulandelana ochungechungeni nge-stator.

Njengoba isochungechungeni lwazo zonke izihluthulelo ezintsha kanye nalezo ezingaphakathi kwenjini, i-voltage entsha kanye nezangaphakathi, i-voltage ihlukaniswa phakathi kwama-resistors amasha nalawo enjini esebenza ku-voltage encane kunethiwekhi yokuqala.

Ngemva kwemizuzwana emihlanu, iphuzu lokumelana livela lapho injini iqala, ifakwa esimweni esivamile sokusebenza.

Ama-resistors aqondaniswe ukuze athole ukwehla ngo-70% ku-nominal voltage (Vn). Lolu hlobo lwesiqalisi lusetshenziswa kumamotho angama-25 Hp.

I-VMotor Winding Resistance= VF.

Ama-resistors amasha ngokulandelana.

Singakwazi nokubeka ama-resistors amabili kuma-series emoteni, esigabeni sokuqala iyancipha amanye bese kwesesibili izikhonya zombili. Ukubhutha kwenziwa ngezinyathelo ezintathu.

Ama-resistors aguquguqukayo angafakwa ngisho nakuma-resistor noma inani lawo lingashintshwa lize lehle libe ngu-0 ohms.

Le nqubo inenkinga yokuthi iyakwazi ukunciphisa okwamanje ngokulandelana, kusukela ekwehleni kwe-voltage ekhiqizwa kuma-resistors.

Nakuba isinyathelo sizohlala sincishisiwe ngesikwele sokwehla kwamandla kagesi, kungenxa yalesi sizathu ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwaso kumamotho ngezikhathi zokuqalisa ukumelana kukhawulelwe.

Inzuzo yayo ukuqedwa kokumelana okuhlukene, ekupheleni kokuqaliswa kwamandla kagesi we-Motor iqala ukukhawulelwa futhi izenzakalo zesikhashana.

Qala nge-Autotransformer

Kubandakanya ukuxhuma i-autotransformer yezigaba ezintathu ekunikezeni amandla enjini. Ukuze ngale ndlela kungenzeka ukunciphisa i-voltage kanye nesiqalo samanje.

I-torque yokuqala ihlala iyancipha ngokuvumelana okufanayo namanje, isikwele se-voltage ehlile. Le nqubo inikeza isici sokuqala, kodwa ine-drawback yezindleko eziphezulu.

isiqalisi se-elekthronikhi

Lokhu kusetshenziselwa ukuqala njalo ku-motor ye-asynchronous yezigaba ezintathu.

Njengamanje, ngenxa yobuchwepheshe obusha, amadivaysi e-semiconductor yamandla (thyristors) athuthukisiwe, asebenzayo ukulawula nokukhawulela amandla amanje kanye ne-torque ngesikhathi ngasinye sokuqalisa.

Amapheya amathathu e-SCR (thyristors) ku-"anti-parallel connection" asetshenziselwa ukuqalisa i-Motor. I-algorithm isetshenziselwa ukuqapha amashothi nge-microprocessor.

Nakuba kuneziqalisi ezithambile nezikrini, isikhungo sokusetha imingcele ngezinkinobho zedijithali.

Ngalawa madivayisi, ngaphezu kokukhawulela amandla amanje futhi abangele ukuthi i-motor ithuthukise i-torque ye-motor yamanje ekulayisheni komshini kungakhathaliseki isivinini ngenxa yesiguquli se-fickle frequency.

Ngale ndlela, uma ufuna ukusekela i-torque engaguquki, ufaka ireferensi eqhubekayo ye-voltage/frequency ku-motor.

Lokhu kuqalisa kwenziwa kusetshenziswa i-voltage ne-frequency ekhuphuka njalo isuka ku-0 iye kumanani awo avamile.

Lawa madivaysi aqashelwa njengeziqalisi ezithambile, ngakho kungenzeka ukulungisa amajika ahlukahlukene okuqala futhi ngaleyo ndlela aqonde imithwalo yohlobo oluguquguqukayo.

Ukuguqulwa Kokuzungezisa Kwemoto

Ukuze uguqule ukujikeleza kwe-motor, kuyadingeka futhi ukuguqula isiqondiso senkambu ejikelezayo.

Lokhu kufinyelelwa ngokuhlehlisa ukuxhunywa kwezigaba ezimbili zezimoto. Lokhu kusebenza ngokuvamile kwenziwa kusetshenziswa ezishintshayo ekuqaleni contactors.

I-Speed ​​​​Regulation

I-motor induction motor enezigaba ezintathu ikakhulukazi iyijubane noma isivinini esiqhubekayo, ngakho-ke kuyinkimbinkimbi ukuqinisekisa isivinini sayo. Ukuhlolwa kwe-induction motor kwenziwa ngenxa yomthamo wokungeniswa kanye nesici samandla kagesi aphansi. Nakuba ngezinye izikhathi kuyadingeka ukuhlola isivinini.

Ungakhohlwa isivinini semoto:

nS= (60XF)/P

Uma sifuna ukushintsha isivinini semoto kufanele siguqule inombolo yezigxobo (n) noma siguqule imvamisa yokunikezwa kwamandla ayo. Uma ukwazi ukushintsha okukodwa kwalokhu okuguquguqukayo sizobe sikwazile ukuqinisekisa isivinini.

Nge-thyristors, imvamisa ephakela injini ingalawulwa. Lokhu kufezwa ngokushintshana phakathi kwemikhawulo emikhulu yejubane lenjini.

Injini yesivinini ezimbili

Le moto enesivinini esiphindwe kabili inezici zokwakha zemoto evamile, ihluke kuphela kuma-windings, kuyilapho i-motor evamile, ukujika ngakunye kungokwesigaba, ku-motor ye-Dahlander i-single phase winding ihlukaniswe izingxenye ezimbili ezifanayo ngompompi ophakathi.

Njengoba sixhuma amakhoyili la sizazuza isivinini esinensayo noma esisheshayo. Okufinyelelwe empeleni ukushintsha inani lamapheya e-pole of the winding.

Esethulweni esilandelayo sinomjikelezo wamandla wenjini enezigaba ezintathu enezigxobo eziguquguqukayo zesivinini ezimbili ngokuxhuma kwe-Dahlander.

Ijubane eliphansi lifinyelelwa ngesikhathi se-contactor ye-KM1 futhi isebenze ngokuhambisana nezixhumi ze-KM2 ne-kM3.

Ukulawula Isivinini ngama-Windings Ahlukene noma Azimele

Ngaphezu kwalokho, kungenzeka ukufeza izivinini ezimbili ezihlukene zokuzungezisa ngokuphuma kokubili okukude. Ijika ngalinye linezigxobo eziningana ngokwejubane elilindelekile.

Kuye nge-accrual engaxhunywa, izofinyelela isivinini esisodwa noma esinye. Ngathi yizinjini ezimbili eziyisigamu.

Phakathi naleso sikhathi, ukuqala "ingxenye ye-motor" kuphela kucishwa ngokuqondile ku-voltage egcwele ku-mains, ehlukanisa isiqalo samanje kusuka ku-torque ngamabili noma ngaphansi.

Nakuba, i-torque inkulu kunaleyo engahlinzekwa ukuqala kwenkanyezi ye-squirrel-cage motor enezigaba ezintathu yamandla anjalo. Lapho kuqedwa ukuqalisa, ukujikajika okulandelayo kunamathela kunethiwekhi.

Lapho isiqongo samanje siphansi futhi sinokuqina okuncane, ngenxa yenjini engazange isuke kunethiwekhi yokuphakelwa kwamandla futhi ukufuduka kwayo kuba buthakathaka. Le nqubo isetshenziswa kancane eYurophu, kodwa emakethe yaseMelika ivame kakhulu.

injini yezigaba ezintathu

I-Temporizador

Kuyidivayisi enekhono lokuqapha isekethe exhunyiwe noma enqanyuliwe. Lokhu kungaba ngumshini, owomoya, okagesi, owakhiwe ngamanzi noma ngogesi, phakathi kokunye.

Kuyini?

Le divayisi ingasetshenziswa kuzo zonke izinhlobo zokusetshenziswa. Ezintweni ezihlobene nobuchwepheshe, izinto zikagesi, ukusetshenziswa kwasekhaya, izilingisi ezinembayo zazo zonke izinhlobo, imisebenzi ehlobene neziqhumane kanye nesayensi yezinto eziphilayo.

Singakubona futhi kuma-timers, omakhalekhukhwini, imishini yasekhishini, izinto zikagesi zazo zonke izinhlobo, izilawuli kude ukuhlela nokuvala kwazo ngezikhathi ezithile, ekukhanyisweni kwamabhizinisi nasemakhaya, zisetshenziswa kuma-laboratories be-biological ukuthatha isikhathi ukuchayeka kwezinto ezisebenzayo kanye nasekuqhunyisweni kweziqhumane, nokwenza ukuhlaziya kuphelele.

Kusebenza kanjani

Noma ngabe iyisiphi isikhathi ngempela, zonke zibuswa yimbangela efanayo. Lapho uthatha i-pulse, ukushintshaniswa koxhumana nabo kwenziwa, okuthi ekupheleni kwesikhathi esihleliwe, ngokushesha kuzivuselele endaweni yayo yokuqala.

Izinhlobo Zesibali sikhathi

Isibali sikhathi singahlukaniswa ngezindlela ezimbili: sihlukanise ngendlela esisabela ngayo ekushayeni noma ngokomgomo wokusebenza kwaso.

Ngokusho kwe-Pulse Reaction zihlukaniswa kanje:

Ku-Timer

Ngokwamukela ukushaya kwenhliziyo okuvulayo, isikhathi esihleliwe siqala ukusebenza. Ekupheleni kwesikhathi, kuye ngohlobo lwesibali sikhathi, abathintwayo bayavula noma bavale.

Nqamula Isibali sikhathi

Lolu hlobo lwesibali-sikhathi lunokushaya kwenhliziyo okukhanya kancane kancane, ngakho ukumiswa kwalo kukhiqiza ukuphazamiseka njengesignali yokubuyela koxhumana nabo abavamile ekupheleni kokubala okushiwo.

I-Single Pulse Timer

Lesi sibali sikhathi sinamandla okuvulwa ukuze ulawule isikhathi esimisiwe ngokushaya kwesikhashana kobude obufushane kakhulu.

Ngokusho kwesimiso sokusebenza, zihlukaniswa kanje:

Isibali sikhathi seTire

Lolu hlobo lwedivayisi lusebenza ngokuhlanganiswa kokuthathu kodwa ngokomthetho lusebenza ngamandla omoya:

Ama-valve amabili, i-throttle eyodwa engabuyi, enye ene-spring return, idivayisi yomoya.

injini yezigaba ezintathu

I-valve yokuminyanisa ilawula inani lomoya futhi lapho igcwaliswa, enye i-valve iyashintsha indawo yayo ukuze ithumele isignali futhi iqedele isibali sikhathi.

Isikhathi esine-synchronous Motor

Ukusebenza kwalesi sigaba sedivayisi kufana nalokho okusetshenziswa ekwenzeni amawashi, kodwa esikhundleni samandla emishini, lezi zinikezwa amandla kagesi ophuma ezinjini; ukuguqulwa kwesikhundla se-contactor kwenziwa nge-electromagnetic inference.

Isibali sikhathi esishisayo

Zenziwe ikhoyili exhunywe eshidini le-bimetallic. Ikhoyili yamukela amandla aqhubekayo ngendlela kagesi nge-transformer, ngaleyo ndlela ishidi liyashisa, lishintshe ukuma kwalo kanye nokugoba ngenxa yombala kuze kube yilapho lixhumeka noma lehliswe kukhoyili, liqala ukuphela kwesikhathi esimisiwe.

Isibali sikhathi sikagesi

Lolu hlobo lwesibali-sikhathi lusekelwe esimisweni sokushaja nokukhipha, kusetshenziswa ukumelana kukagesi okusetshenziswe ku-electrolytic capacitor ezokwamukela okwamanje uma isikhathi siqala ukubala, nalapho isikhathi esimisiwe siphela, abathintwayo benziwa kazibuthe.

Izingxenye Zesibali sikhathi

Izikhathi zenziwa izingxenye ezihlukene, zenziwa ngezindlela ezahlukene futhi zinezakhi zokusebenza ezifanayo.

Izibali sikhathi zikagesi zihlanganiswe neziphethu, amantongomane namagiya, kanti isibali sikhathi sikagesi sidinga ama-capacitor namasekhethi ahlanganisiwe.

Izingxenye ezijwayelekile abavame ukwabelana ngazo yilezi ezilandelayo:

  • Entwasahlobo: ngayo, ukusekelwa kuhlangana nekhamera.
  • Ukusekela: iwumkhakha ohlukanisa ikhamera entwasahlobo, inemibiko yenkomishi esakhiweni sayo.
  • I-Cam: Ihlangana nosekelo ngemuva kokuvulwa yintwasahlobo, ivule ukubala kwesikhathi.
  • I-eksisi: ukusekelwa okuqondile kwesakhiwo.
  • Intwasahlobo yeNdebe: ingaphakathi kokusekelwa, ziyazwela futhi zicupha ukusebenza kwe-timer lapho ukusekelwa kwehliswa isenzo sentwasahlobo.
  • Intwasahlobo yokucindezela: ibekwe ngakolunye uhlangothi kuya entwasahlobo eyenza isibali sikhathi sisebenze, lapho sithola khona ukucindezela komfutho okhiqizwayo lapho kuqaliswa isibali sikhathi.
  • Othintana naye ngeselula: ngokwendawo yekhamera, ukusekelwa neziphethu, izonyakaza, ibale noma imise isibali sikhathi.

I-servomotor

Ziyimodeli yemoto ekhethekile, lezi zinikeza kalula ukulawula ukubekwa kwe-axis nganoma yisiphi isikhathi. Yakhelwe ngaphansi komsebenzi wokunyakaza nokubeka endaweni ethile nokuhlala ugxilile kuyo.

Okubizwa ngokuthi ama-DC motors, lapho sithola khona kumathoyizi enza umsebenzi othile, lawa ma-motor azungeza angami, awakwazi ukujikeleza futhi ajikeleze futhi ahlale eqinile endaweni eyodwa, ama-DC motors angakwazi ukuzungeza njalo kuze kube yilapho ugesi unqanyulwa.

Ama-Servo motors yiwo asetshenziselwa ukwakhiwa kwamarobhothi, yilawa awanika amandla okunyakaza bese ehlala eqinile.

Izinhlobo

Ukusetshenziswa okunikezwa ama-servomotors kubanzi kakhulu, kusukela embonini, ngokusebenzisa imishini yokunyathelisa, amathoyizi, amarobhothi.

Lokhu kungahlukaniswa ngokuya ngokunyakaza kwayo:

Injini ye-servo eshintshayo elinganiselwe

Lezi zivame kakhulu, zizungeza kuphela ku-180 °, ngakho azikwazi ukujika ngokuphelele ku-eksisi yazo.

injini yezigaba ezintathu

i-servomotor ejikelezayo eqhubekayo

Lawa ma-servomotor aphenduka ngokugcwele anamandla okujikeleza ku-axis yawo engu-360 °, naphezu kwalokhu ukusebenza kwawo kucishe kufane nokwemoto elula, kungumehluko ongakwazi ukulawula ukunyakaza, isivinini kanye nesimo.

izinhlelo zokusebenza zemoto kagesi

Akunakwenzeka ukubiza yonke imishini kanye nokusetshenziswa okunganikezwa injini kagesi enezigaba ezintathu, nasi isifinyezo sokushintshwa okuyinhloko kwalawa ma-motor:

  • Ama-Compressors: le divayisi kagesi isetshenziselwa ukunciphisa umthamo woketshezi futhi ngenxa yalokho ikhulise ukucindezela kwayo, iguqule ibe yigesi.
  • Amaphampu amanzi: ukulawula ingcindezi, ukungena noma ukugcwaliswa kwamanzi kunoma iyiphi indawo efana nethangi noma ichibi.
  • Amakheshi kagesi noma kagesi, awaziwa nangokuthi amakheshi, okuthutha abantu noma izinto.
  • Izitebhisi zikagesi noma zemishini, kufanele usebenze zidinga injini kagesi enezigaba ezintathu.
  • I-air conditioning, izimboni kanye nomuntu ngamunye, zombili zisebenza nge-motor enezigaba ezintathu.
  • Amasango, amarempu, umoya omncane.

Lokhu ukubuka okulula kuzo zonke izinto ezisetshenziswayo ezisebenzisa izinjini zikagesi, kanye nezimboni eziwadingayo, kusukela emakhaya, ezibhedlela, kuya ezimbonini ezinkulu zokukhiqiza nezokucubungula.

Ama-motor kagesi, ngaphezu kokuba namakhulu amabili, nawo anobukhulu obuhlukahlukene, kuye ngokusetshenziswa okuzonikezwa, yingakho inani labo lihluka. Ngaphezu kwalokho, amandla adingekayo ocezu ngalunye lwemishini ahlukile, ngakho-ke kukhona injini kagesi enezigaba ezintathu yazo zonke izidingo.

Mayelana nobuso bokwakha, kubalulekile ukugqamisa ukuthi kunezinhlobo ezanele emakethe, eziningi zazo ezinezicelo ezithile. Kulokhu okuthunyelwe sibhekana kuphela nezisetshenziswa kakhulu, nemininingwane yokusebenza kwazo, ukusetshenziswa kanye nemininingwane.