Kulesi sihloko, sichaza ukuthi izikhala zokunweba ziyini nokuthi zenzani, uma kubhekwa ukubaluleka kwazo njengama-elementi avumela amandla okusebenza wamakhadi ahlukene wedivayisi ukuthi ashintshwe usayizi ukuze kuzuze umsebenzisi. Ngakho sikumema ukuba uqhubeke ufunda lesi sihloko esithakazelisayo.

UKUKHULA IZILOTHI

Ukunwetshwa Slots: Incazelo kanye Umbuso indawo

Iwuxhumano noma imbobo engaphakathi kwekhompyutha ebhodini lomama noma ekhadini lesikhuphukeli. Ihlinzeka ngendawo yokufaka yokuxhuma ikhadi lokunwetshwa kwezingxenyekazi zekhompuyutha ukuze kunwetshwe amakhono ekhompuyutha, okuhlanganisa amakhadi evidiyo, amakhadi enethiwekhi, noma amakhadi omsindo. Ngokuya ngesici sefomu yekesi kanye nebhodi lomama, isistimu yekhompiyutha ngokuvamile inenombolo ekhawulelwe, ngokuvamile izikhala zokunweba esisodwa kuya kweziyisikhombisa.

Uma unokukhathazeka ukuthi ziyini? impendulo ilula, amakhompyutha anezikhala zokunweba ukuze anikeze umsebenzisi ikhono lokwengeza amadivaysi amasha kukhompyutha yakhe. Isibonelo, umdlali wekhompyutha angathuthukisa ikhadi lakhe levidiyo ukuze asebenze kangcono kumageyimu akhe futhi ahambisane nentuthuko yenkundla yezithombe nokusebenza. Imbobo enwetshiwe ikuvumela ukuthi ukhiphe ikhadi lakho levidiyo elidala futhi wengeze elisha endaweni enwebayo ehambisanayo ngaphandle kokufaka ibhodi lakho lomama.

Izikhala ezengeziwe zokunweba zingangezwa ebhodini lomama elidala kusetshenziswa isikhuphukeli sebhodi, esizongeza izikhala eziningi ze-ISA noma ze-PCI. Kodwa-ke, namuhla amabhodi okukhuphukela phezulu awavamile ukusetshenziswa namabhodi omama ngoba amabhodi omama anamuhla anesidingo esilinganiselwe sezindawo zokunweba ezengeziwe futhi anezici ezakhelwe ngqo kubhodi yomama, esusa isidingo samakhadi amaningi okunweba. .

Yonke i-motherboard yekhompyutha ihlukile. Ukuze uthole ukuthi zingaki izikhala zokunweba kufanele uhlole imanuwali yomkhiqizi noma uvule okokusebenza. Amakhompyutha aphathekayo awanazo izikhala zokunweba ezifanayo namakhompyutha edeskithophu. Nokho, abokuqala banekhadi le-PC elingafakwa eceleni kwe-laptop. Bangase futhi babe slot Cardbus ukwengeza ExpressCard.

Izinhlobo Ukwandiswa Slots

Eminyakeni edlule, kube nezinhlobo ezahlukene zezikhala zokunweba, okuhlanganisa i-PCI, i-AGP, i-AMR, i-CNR, i-ISA, i-EISA, ne-VESA, kodwa esetshenziswa kakhulu namuhla i-PCIe. Ngenkathi amanye amakhompyutha amasha esenezikhala ze-PCI ne-AGP, i-PCIe ngokuyisisekelo ithathele indawo yabo bonke ubuchwepheshe obudala. Ngokwengxenye yayo, i-ePCIe, noma i-PCI Express yangaphandle, ingolunye uhlobo lwendlela yokwandisa, kodwa inguqulo yangaphandle ye-PCIe. Okusho ukuthi, idinga uhlobo oluthile lwekhebula olusuka ebhodini lomama luye ngemuva kwekhompyutha, lapho luxhuma khona kudivayisi ye-ePCIe.

Izikhala zokunweba zinemigqa yedatha, okungamapheya esignali asetshenziselwa ukuthumela nokwamukela idatha, ngezintambo ezine ngepheya ngayinye. Ithrekhi ingadlulisela amaphakethe angu-8-bit ohlangothini ngalunye. Njengoba imbobo yokukhulisa i-PCIe ingaba nemizila engu-1 kuye kwengama-32, ibhalwe ngo-"x" ukukhombisa inani lemizila ku-slot kanye nesivinini sayo, yingakho amakhadi ezithombe evame ukuklanywa ukuthi asebenzise imbobo ye-x16. .

Ukufakwa Kwekhadi Lokunweba

Qaphela ukuthi ikhadi lokunweba lingaxhunywa endaweni yokunweba ngenombolo ephezulu, kodwa lingalokothi libe nenombolo ephansi. Kulokhu, ikhadi lokunwetshwa le-x1 lingaba kunoma iyiphi indawo futhi lisebenze ngesivinini salo. Nokho, ikhadi le-x32 alikwazi ukuba endaweni encane. Ngakho-ke, uma ufaka ikhadi lokunweba, kubalulekile ukuthi uvale ikhompuyutha futhi unqamule ikhebula lamandla ngemuva kokunikezwa kwamandla ngaphambi kokukhipha ikesi.

Izimbobo zokunweba ngokuvamile zitholakala ekhoneni lezikhala ze-RAM, kodwa lokhu akuhlali kunjalo. Uma i-slot yokwandisa ingakaze isetshenziswe ngaphambili, kuzoba khona ubakaki wensimbi ovala indawo ehambisanayo ngemuva kwekhompyutha. Lokhu kufanele kukhishwe, ngokuvamile ngokukhulula ubakaki, ukuze ufinyelele ikhadi lokunweba. Isibonelo, uma ufaka ikhadi levidiyo, ukuvulwa kukuvumela ukuthi uxhume imonitha ekhadini ngentambo yevidiyo (njenge-HDMI, VGA, noma i-DVI).

Uma uqhubeka nenqubo, qiniseka ukuthi ubambe unqenqema lwepuleti lensimbi uma ulinamathisela, hhayi izixhumi eziphuzi okufanele ziqondaniswe nembobo yokunweba, bese usebenzisa amandla abheke phansi esikhaleni. Naka unqenqema lapho okuxhunywe khona ikhebula futhi kufinyeleleka kalula ngemuva kwekesi ledivayisi. Ungaphinda ususe ikhadi lokunweba elikhona ngokubheka ukuze ubone ukuthi udinga ukubamba isiqeshana endaweni ngaphambi kokusisusa.

Umehluko phakathi kwe-PCI ne-PCI Express Slots

Ekuqaleni kwenkathi yekhompiyutha, inani elikhulu lolwazi lalidluliselwa ngokuxhumeka kwe-serial. Amakhompiyutha ahlukanisa lokhu kwaziswa abe amaphakethe abese ehambisa amaphakethe esuka endaweni eyodwa aya kwenye ngesikhathi. Ukuxhumana kwe-serial bekunokwethenjelwa kodwa kuhamba kancane, ngakho-ke abakhiqizi baqala ukusebenzisa ukuxhumana okufanayo ukuthumela idatha eminingi ngesikhathi esisodwa. Kuvele ukuthi ukuxhumana okuhambisanayo kunezinkinga zakhona njengoba isivinini siya phezulu naphezulu.

UKUKHULA IZILOTHI

Ezinye zalezi zibonelo izintambo ezingaphazamisana ngozibuthe, ngakho manje i-pendulum inyakaza ekuxhumekeni kwe-serial okusebenza kahle kakhulu. Ukuthuthukiswa kwezingxenyekazi zekhompiyutha kanye nenqubo yokuhlukaniswa kwephakethe, ukulebula, nokwakha kabusha kuholele ekuxhumekeni kwe-serial okusheshayo okufana ne-USB 2.0, i-USB 3.0, ne-FireWire. Futhi, i-PCI Express iyisistimu ye-serial esebenza kakhulu njengenethiwekhi kunebhasi. Esikhundleni sebhasi elilodwa eliphatha ulwazi oluvela emithonjeni eminingi, i-PCIe inoshintsho olusingatha okunye ukuxhumana kwe-point-to-point.

Lezi zixhumanisi zisuka kukhompuyutha, ethunyelwa ngqo kumadivayisi lapho ulwazi luzothunyelwa khona. Idivayisi ngayinye ine-trunk yayo ezinikele, ngakho-ke amasistimu awasakwazi ukwabelana ngomkhawulokudonsa njengoba enza ebhasini elivamile. Ngalo mqondo, lapho i-PC ivuliwe, izinhlelo ze-PCI ama-peripherals azo avumelaniswa nebhodi lomama. Ibese ithola izixhumanisi phakathi kwamadivayisi, ngaleyo ndlela idale imephu yendawo okuyiwa kuyo ithrafikhi futhi ixoxisane ngobubanzi boxhumano ngalunye. Lokhu kukhonjwa kwamadivayisi nokuxhumana kuyinqubo esetshenziswa i-PCI, ngakho i-PCIe ayicubunguli izinguquko kusofthiwe yekhompyutha noma izinhlelo zokusebenza.

Amakhadi wevidiyo

Izimbobo zokunweba zisetshenziselwa ukwengeza noma ukuthuthukisa ikhadi levidiyo lekhompyutha. Ikhadi levidiyo lilawula ukuboniswa kwezithombe futhi libalulekile ekusebenzeni kwesistimu ngemisebenzi edinga isithombe efana nemidlalo, ukuhlela ividiyo, kanye nokwakheka kwengcaca. Lokhu kuyadingeka ukuze unxephezele imikhawulo yekhadi lakho lokuqala levidiyo, futhi ukuthuthukisa le ngxenye ngokusebenzisa indawo yokunweba kungavuselela ikhompuyutha yakho. Ukwengeza, amakhadi wevidiyo angengezwa ukuze kwandiswe inombolo nezinhlobo zezibonisi ezingaxhunywa kukhompuyutha ngesikhathi esisodwa.

Amakhadi enethiwekhi

Izikhala zokunweba zingasetshenziswa ukwengeza amakhadi enethiwekhi kukhompyutha. Ikhadi lenethiwekhi ye-Wi-Fi lingengezwa kukhompuyutha uma isistimu ingafakelwe i-adaptha ye-Wi-Fi. Ukwengeza, ama-adaptha ekhadi lokunweba le-Wi-Fi angathathelwa indawo amakhadi amasha, asheshayo njengoba etholakala.ethula i-Wi-Fi ethuthukisiwe- Izindinganiso ze-Fi. Izikhala zokunweba zingasetshenziswa ukusebenzisa amakhadi enethiwekhi amaningi ngesikhathi esisodwa kubasebenzisi abathuthukile.

Amakhadi Wedivayisi Yokujikeleza

Uma kukhulunywa ngamakhadi okunwetshwa kwedivayisi, kufanele kukhulunywe ukuthi angaxhunywa ezikhaleni ukwengeza izimbobo ezengeziwe kukhompuyutha. Izimbobo zingase zibe ezezinga elisha, elisheshayo, noma izinga ikhompyutha engakayisekeli. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kunamakhadi okunweba asekela amazinga okuxhumana e-SCSI ne-SATA yangaphakathi angasetshenziswa ukukhulisa inombolo enkulu yama-hard drive nama-optical drive angasekelwa ikhompuyutha.

amakhadi okuqopha

Amadivayisi agxile ekurekhodeni njengamakhadi eshuna ye-TV namakhadi omsindo angangezwa kumabhodi omama ngesikhala sokunwetshwa. Amabhodi omama amaningi afaka amakhadi omsindo anamandla. Futhi, amakhadi okushuna kamabonakude, asetshenziselwa ukubonisa nokuqopha izinhlelo ze-TV njenge-DVR, awawona ukufakwa okujwayelekile kumakhompyutha. Kukhona izinguqulo zangaphandle zazo zombili izinhlobo zamakhadi okurekhoda axhumeka ezimbobeni ze-USB ne-FireWire, kodwa izinguqulo zekhadi lokunwetshwa lamadivayisi zingasebenzisa ithuba lokuxhumana okusheshayo kwe-PCI Express.

Uma uthande lesi sihloko mayelana nokuthi ziyini izikhala zokunweba nokuthi zenzelweni, sikumema ukuthi ufunde izihloko ezilandelayo ozithakaselayo: